UNSUBSCRIBE! Tips for de-cluttering your Outlook work inbox

If you’ve ever used Outlook at your workplace, you’ve undoubtedly been in “reply-all” Hell, where someone sends an email to several distribution lists with thousands of users  on it, and then the thread keeps going – either with valid replies, bad jokes/puns or with numerous emails from desperate people wanting to be removed from the thread.


(And yes, this was spawned by a recent occurrence of this)

  • Take me off this list!
  • Please remove me!
  • Please use bcc!


There’s not a catch all way to avoid this, but you can be assured that you are *not* completely helpless when you’re caught in the deluge.

Here are some Outlook tips/tricks that I use to keep my inbox as clutter-free as possible, as well as email etiquette you can use as a sender.

These tips mostly cover Microsoft Outlook thick client on Windows. If you have additional tips, or tips for Mac Outlook/O365 (or other email clients) comment below!

Etiquette for Senders

If you’re planning on *sending* to a distribution list, try to keep in mind that you might be guilty of the very offenses that might annoy you. So, try to think before you blast off that mass email.

Consider your audience

Your email is likely targeted to a select group of people.  So that means you probably don’t need to send it to 10 different distribution lists – and you almost *certainly* don’t need to send it to the entire company. In fact, smart companies prevent most employees from sending emails to the largest DLs.

Try to send only to 2-3 DLs at most, and make sure they are your targeted audience.

Check the numbers

How many people are in that distribution list? Not sure? Sometimes, Outlook will show you in plain sight:


If there isn’t a field there, you can go to the DL’s properties to see who is a member of the group.


Do you need people to “Reply all” to this message?

As a sender, you might be able control whether people can reply all to your email with permissions in Outlook. This article covers it:

Preventing Reply All

(If your organization isn’t using IRM, this won’t work.)

Using “blind copy” (bcc)

This one is tricky; if you use it, then replies only go to you. But it also will break rules for users that filter emails to folders and end up in their inbox. If that’s your intent (as in, forcing someone to see your email rather than it going to a rule) then by all means do it, you evil, evil person. But it’s something to keep in mind; using the reply all permissions is a better option for everyone, IMO.

Tips for Controlling Your Inbox

While some people may not be aware of the tricks for senders (or are and just don’t care), you are not helpless as someone who gets email. There are ways to control your inbox, even if you’re on a Mac.

Tired of a thread? Ignore it!

In Windows Outlook, if you’re sick of a thread, you can click the “Ignore” button, which basically redirects all emails from that conversation to the Delete folder.


Subscribed to multiple DLs? Use your rules!

Outlook provides methods to filter emails based on a variety of things; keywords, subjects, senders, etc. I like to filter by the DLs things get sent to. These get filtered to specific folders I created, rather than cluttering up my inbox.

This does two things:

  • Keeps things organized
  • Keeps me sane

Creating a rule is easy. In fact, you can create one from an email that you receive by clicking on the little icon in the “Move” section.


One issue here is that if someone sends an email with the DL you set a rule for in BCC, the rule won’t work. There are workarounds, but they’re not always ideal.

Use Quick Steps!

Outlook has a way to create actions that you can trigger with the push of a button called “Quick Steps.” This is a more manual process, but it helps if you get bcc’d on emails.


As you can see, I’ve created several Quick Steps. My “Support” quick step will move the email I run it on to a folder called “Support.” I don’t use these a ton, but if I get emails from people not on DLs and I don’t want to filter them all but want to keep for later, I can create one of these.


One use case that comes to mind is for my technical report (TR) writing; sometimes I see an interesting thread or a frequently asked question that I need to put into the next TR update. I usually manually move that message, which can be cumbersome since I have so many folders I use to filter. With a quick step, I can just click a button to move it.

UNSUBSCRIBE (no, seriously)!

One of the most unintentionally hilarious results of a “reply all” storm is the mass of “reply all” emails that all want to be removed from the DL. For one, that doesn’t work – no one is going to remove you and emailing the DL with that reply doesn’t automatically do it. Second, you might not have total control over removing yourself; sometimes, an email has been sent to a larger DL (like all employees) and you’re a member of one of the thousand sub-groups in that DL. Removing you from the group removes you from other possibly important emails.

You likely have a way to remove yourself from a DL, but you need to check with your email admins or IT organization to do that. At my company, we have KB articles on how to do it, and a nice web-based group management interface to add/remove ourselves from groups. Some email servers allow you to send an email to a DL you want to subscribe or unsubscribe to with specific subject lines. Again, check with your IT admins.

Junk mail

Most email administrators employ some fashion of spam filtering. However, these things can’t block everything, so it’s up to you at that point.

If you are getting frequent spam, make it a habit to use the “Junk mail/block sender” options. Otherwise, you’ll keep getting those emails.


You can manage your junk mail settings, including the email addresses on the blocked/allowed lists with “Junk E-Mail Options.” (I’m including the blocked senders, because those spammers are annoying)

junk-options2   junk-options

(Not) Junk mail

One thing I forget often is that, sometimes, our corporate spam filter is *too* effective. I’ll sign up for an account somewhere and it gets filtered into junk. After the 2nd or 3rd “forgot my login” request gets put there, I finally remember to check the junk folder. So, it makes sense to occasionally check there to see if anything got put there incorrectly, and then whitelist it by marking it “not junk.”

Got any tips?

Do you have any things you do with your email management? If so, add to the comments!

Using Windows Lightweight Directory Services for UNIX Identity Management with ONTAP

Windows Active Directory domains have been the way to leverage UNIX identity management in environments using Windows, given the tight integration with Kerberos, Windows accounts and ease of use. I cover a lot of this in TR-4073 (with a new LDAP-only TR coming out soon).

But, it doesn’t always fit all use cases.

For example, what if:

  • You don’t have a Windows Active Directory domain?
  • You don’t have access or permission to modify Active Directory domain accounts to use UNIX attributes?
  • You don’t need a full-fledged AD domain with hundreds or thousands of users/groups, but only need a handful of users and groups for a single application?

There are likely other use cases that could apply here, but if you need LDAP without dealing with AD domains, we can leverage something called Windows Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services for identity management and LDAP services.

Image result for windows active directory lds

This also illustrates that pretty much *any* LDAP server can be used with ONTAP.

For example, this is a query from ONTAP to a server running AD LDS:

::*> getxxbyy getgrlist -node node1 -vserver NFS -username lds
(vserver services name-service getxxbyyy getgrlist)
pw_name: lds
Groups: 1101 1102

::*> getxxbyyy getpwbyname -node node1 -vserver NFS -username lds
(vserver services name-service getxxbyyy getpwbyname)
pw_name: lds
pw_uid: 1001
pw_gid: 1101

The configuration from ONTAP is identical for any LDAP server. In my case, I used the read-only LDAP client schema template named “MS-AD-BIS.”

Basic configuration steps:

  • Create the LDAP client (“ldap client create” using the stock LDAP template MS-AD-BIS)
  • Create/enable LDAP on the SVM (ldap create)
  • Configure DNS on the SVM (dns create/modify)
  • Modify ns-switch to use LDAP (ns-switch modify)

This was my LDAP client configuration:

::*> ldap client show -client-config LDS

Vserver: NFS
Client Configuration Name: LDS
LDAP Server List: PARISI-WIN2019
(DEPRECATED)-LDAP Server List: -
Active Directory Domain: -
Preferred Active Directory Servers: -
Bind Using the Vserver's CIFS Credentials: false
Schema Template: MS-AD-BIS
LDAP Server Port: 389
Query Timeout (sec): 3
Minimum Bind Authentication Level: anonymous
Bind DN (User): administrator
Base Search Scope: subtree
User DN: -
User Search Scope: subtree
Group DN: -
Group Search Scope: subtree
Netgroup DN: -
Netgroup Search Scope: subtree
Vserver Owns Configuration: false
Use start-tls Over LDAP Connections: false
Enable Netgroup-By-Host Lookup: false
Netgroup-By-Host DN: -
Netgroup-By-Host Scope: subtree
Client Session Security: none
LDAP Referral Chasing: false
Group Membership Filter:

The hardest part of this configuration for me was the AD LDS side, as there are a bunch of manual steps involved.

Configuring AD LDS for LDAP Services

The best guide I came across was this one:

AD LDS Identity Mapping for Services for NFS

Even with this guide, however, there were a few tweaks that needed to be made to the steps. For example, in the guide, they used the AD Schema Manager. But since this isn’t a full AD instance, you might be stuck using ADSI Edit.

One place I also got stuck was a RTFM moment where I forgot in my initial configuration to create an application partition. This is essential, as this is where you will be creating the OUs/Containers, users and groups for the LDAP services.

When creating the new objects, you’ll want to consider populating the following fields in the users/groups for use with ONTAP (based on the MS-AD-BIS default schema).

Already populated at creation

When you create a new object, “cn” gets autopopulated. This is used to pull the Group names. (User names use “uid” by default)

  • cn


“Required” here means that ONTAP won’t be able to query for the object without these attributes populated properly.

  • uid
  • uidNumber
  • gidNumber

Optional, but recommended

These attributes are recommended, but things will mostly work without setting them (unless you require proper group memberships).

  • unixHomeDirectory
  • memberUid or member (for group memberships)

Optional for specific use cases

This is basically only if you need things like netgroup services or name mapping to Windows users.

  • sAMAccountName (for asymmetric name mappings to Windows)
  • nisObject
  • nisMapName
  • nisMapEntry
  • nisNetgroupTriple
  • memberNisNetgroup
  • loginShell (would need to be added manually)

User and Group creation

For user and group management/creation, you can either use ADSI Edit or PowerShell cmdlets. The ADSI Edit method is covered in the linked guide above.

For PowerShell you can use the standard Get-ADuser/Group and New-ADUser/Group. The catch is that you may have to specify the server – especially if your LDS server is a member of the AD domain.

For example:

PS C:\> get-aduser -Identity lds -server PARISI-WIN2019 -Properties uid,uidNumber,gidNumber,gecos,unixHomeDirectory

DistinguishedName : CN=lds,CN=Accounts,CN=LDS-LDAP,DC=PARISI-WIN2019
Enabled : False
gecos : AD LDS User
gidNumber : 1101
GivenName :
Name : lds
ObjectClass : user
ObjectGUID : 087692ff-ae7f-4171-922a-98accfdfdaa8
SID : S-1-396492173-265181619-2703889971-1168526272-875569285-466579950
Surname :
uid : {lds}
uidNumber : 1001
unixHomeDirectory : /u/lds
UserPrincipalName : lds@NTAP.LOCAL

PS C:\> Get-ADGroup -Identity ldsgroup1 -server PARISI-WIN2019 -Properties gidNumber,member,memberUid

DistinguishedName : CN=ldsgroup1,CN=Accounts,CN=LDS-LDAP,DC=PARISI-WIN2019
gidNumber         : 1101
GroupCategory     : Security
GroupScope        : Global
member            : {CN=lds,CN=Accounts,CN=LDS-LDAP,DC=PARISI-WIN2019}
Name              : ldsgroup1
ObjectClass       : group
ObjectGUID        : 5764424e-aba4-4e68-bff5-b7a6989d3d0c
SID               : S-1-396492173-265181619-2048905208-1111646721-233999250-1998119334

PS C:\> Get-ADGroup -Identity ldsgroup2 -server PARISI-WIN2019 -Properties gidNumber,member,memberUid

DistinguishedName : CN=ldsgroup2,CN=Accounts,CN=LDS-LDAP,DC=PARISI-WIN2019
gidNumber         : 1102
GroupCategory     : Security
GroupScope        : Global
member            : {CN=lds,CN=Accounts,CN=LDS-LDAP,DC=PARISI-WIN2019}
Name              : ldsgroup2
ObjectClass       : group
ObjectGUID        : 8aec090c-0865-4b80-bd4a-723884524ff6
SID               : S-1-396492173-265181619-3623710820-1184275431-3423871139-2897951880

Note that in the group examples, I used “member” – this enables ONTAP to use RFC-2307bis. When you add members using “member,” you use the “Add DN” button in ADSI Edit or the Add-ADGroupMember PowerShell cmdlet. Then you use the full DN of the user.

For example:

PS C:\> Add-ADGroupMember -Identity ldsgroup2 -Members "CN=lds2,CN=Accounts,CN=LDS-LDAP,DC=PARISI-WIN2019" -Server PARISI-WIN2019

PS C:\> Get-ADGroup -Identity ldsgroup2 -server PARISI-WIN2019 -Properties member

DistinguishedName : CN=ldsgroup2,CN=Accounts,CN=LDS-LDAP,DC=PARISI-WIN2019
GroupCategory : Security
GroupScope : Global
member : {CN=lds2,CN=Accounts,CN=LDS-LDAP,DC=PARISI-WIN2019,
Name : ldsgroup2
ObjectClass : group
ObjectGUID : 8aec090c-0865-4b80-bd4a-723884524ff6
SID : S-1-396492173-265181619-3623710820-1184275431-3423871139-2897951880

Now ONTAP will be able to query for both groups for that user:

::*> getxxbyy getgrlist -node node1 -vserver NFS -username lds2
(vserver services name-service getxxbyyy getgrlist)
pw_name: lds2
Groups: 1101 1102

So there it is – ONTAP using AD LDS for UNIX Identity Management.


Image result for disgusted girl meme

Believe it or not, Windows NFS is a thing. Microsoft has its own NFS server and client, which can leverage RFC compliant NFSv3 calls to a Windows Server running NFS server or to a 3rd party NFS server, such as NetApp ONTAP. It’s actually so popular, that NetApp had to re-introduce it in clustered ONTAP (it wasn’t there until ONTAP 8.2.3/8.3.1).

While Windows NFS currently provides NFSv3 clients, they don’t have NFSv4.1 clients – yet. They do provide NFSv4.1 as a server option, though:


I cover Windows NFS support in TR-4067 starting on page 116. I am bringing this topic up because it has come up again recently and I wanted to create a quick and easy blog to follow, as well as call out how you can integrate AD LDAP to help identity management.

There are a few things you have to do to get it working in ONTAP.


  • enable -v3-ms-dos-client option on the NFS server
  • enable -showmount on the NFS server – this prevents some weirdness with writing files
  • disable -enable-ejukebox and -v3-connection-drop

The command would look like this:

cluster::> set advanced
cluster::*> nfs server modify -vserver DEMO -v3-ms-dos-client enabled -v3-connection-drop disabled -enable-ejukebox false -showmount enabled
cluster::*> nfs server show -vserver DEMO -fields v3-ms-dos-client,v3-connection-drop,showmount,enable-ejukebox
vserver enable-ejukebox v3-connection-drop showmount v3-ms-dos-client
------- --------------- ------------------ --------- ----------------
DEMO false disabled enabled enabled

Once that’s done, you can mount via NFS inside Windows clients using the standard “mount” command, provided you’ve enabled the Services for UNIX functionality. There’s plenty of documentation out there for that.

Just by doing the above, here’s an example of a working NFS mount in Windows:

C:\Users\Administrator>mount DEMO:/flexvol X:
X: is now successfully connected to DEMO:/flexvol

The command completed successfully.

Here’s the cluster’s view of that connection:

ontap9-tme-8040::*> network connections active show -node ontap9-tme-8040-0* -service nfs*,mount -remote-ip
              Vserver   Interface         Remote
      CID Ctx Name      Name:Local Port   Host:Port            Protocol/Service
--------- --- --------- ----------------- -------------------- ----------------
Node: ontap9-tme-8040-02
2968991376  4 DEMO      data:2049         oneway.ntap.local:931

When I write a file to the mount, there is something that can prove to be an issue, however. Users other than Administrator will write as UID/GID of 4294967294 (-2).

ontap9-tme-8040::*> vserver security file-directory show -vserver DEMO -path /flexvol/student1-nfs.txt

                Vserver: DEMO
              File Path: /flexvol/student1-nfs.txt
      File Inode Number: 1606599
         Security Style: unix
        Effective Style: unix
         DOS Attributes: 20
DOS Attributes in Text: ---A----
Expanded Dos Attributes: -
           UNIX User Id: 4294967294
          UNIX Group Id: 4294967294
         UNIX Mode Bits: 755
UNIX Mode Bits in Text: rwxr-xr-x
                   ACLs: -

That means users won’t show up properly/as desired in UNIX NFS mounts. For example, this is that same file from CentOS:

[root@centos7 /]# cd flexvol
[root@centos7 flexvol]# ls -la | grep student1-nfs
-rwxr-xr-x 1 4294967294 4294967294 0 Feb 5 09:18 student1-nfs.txt

So, how does one fix that?

Configuring Windows NFS clients to negotiate users properly

There are a few ways to have users leverage UID/GID other than -2.

One way is to “squash” every NFS user to the same UID/GID via the old Windows standby – the Windows registry. This is useful if only a single user will be using an NFS client.

This covers how to do that:


Some of the third party NFS clients (such as Cygwin and Hummingbird/OpenText) will provide local passwd and group file functionality to allow you to leverage more users. In some cases, all this does is add more registry entries.

Another was is to chmod/chown the file after it’s written. But that’s not ideal.

The best way is to leverage an existing name service (such as NIS or LDAP) and have Windows clients query for the UID and GID. If you have one already, great! It’s super easy to set up the client. Just run the following command as an administrator in cmd. My NTAP.LOCAL domain already has an LDAP server set up:

C:\Users\administrator>nfsadmin mapping WIN7-CLIENT config adlookup=yes addomain=NTAP.LOCAL

The settings were successfully updated.

Once I did that, I wrote a new file and the UID/GID was properly represented:

ontap9-tme-8040::*> vserver security file-directory show -vserver DEMO -path /flexvol/prof1-nfs.txt

                Vserver: DEMO
              File Path: /flexvol/prof1-nfs.txt
      File Inode Number: 1606600
         Security Style: unix
        Effective Style: unix
         DOS Attributes: 20
DOS Attributes in Text: ---A----
Expanded Dos Attributes: -
           UNIX User Id: 1100
          UNIX Group Id: 1101
         UNIX Mode Bits: 755
UNIX Mode Bits in Text: rwxr-xr-x
                   ACLs: -

ontap9-tme-8040::*> getxxbyyy getpwbyname -node ontap9-tme-8040-01 -vserver DEMO -username prof1
  (vserver services name-service getxxbyyy getpwbyname)
pw_name: prof1
pw_uid: 1100
pw_gid: 1101

If you’re interested, a packet trace shows that the Windows client will communicate via encrypted LDAP to query the user’s UNIX attribute information:


An added bonus of having Windows clients query LDAP for UNIX user names and groups for NFS on ONTAP is that if you’re using NTFS security style volumes, you won’t have issues connecting to those mounts.

What breaks when doing NTFS security style?

When a UNIX user attempts to access a volume with NTFS security style ACLs, ONTAP will attempt to map that user to a valid Windows user to make sure Windows ACLs can be calculated. (I cover this in Mixed perceptions with NetApp multiprotocol NAS access)

If a user comes in with the default Windows NFS ID of 4294967294 (which doesn’t translate to a UNIX user), this is what happens.

  • The UNIX user 4294967294 tries to access the mount.
  • ONTAP receives a UID of 4294967294 and attempts to map that to a Windows user
  • That Windows user does not exist, so access is denied. This can manifest as an error (such as when writing a file) or it could just show no files/folder.



That particular folder does have data. It’s just that the user can’t see it:


In ONTAP, we’d see this error, confirming that the user doesn’t exist:

2/5/2019 14:31:26 ontap9-tme-8040-02
ERROR secd.nfsAuth.problem: vserver (DEMO) General NFS authorization problem. Error: Get user credentials procedure failed
[ 15 ms] Hostname found in Name Service Cache
[ 19] Hostname found in Name Service Cache
[ 23] Successfully connected to ip, port 389 using TCP
**[ 28] FAILURE: User ID '4294967294' not found in UNIX authorization source LDAP.
[ 28] Entry for user-id: 4294967294 not found in the current source: LDAP. Ignoring and trying next available source
[ 29] Entry for user-id: 4294967294 not found in the current source: FILES. Entry for user-id: 4294967294 not found in any of the available sources
[ 44] Unable to get the name for UNIX user with UID 4294967294

With LDAP involved, access to the access to the NFS mounted volume with NTFS security works much better, because ONTAP and the client agree that user 1100 is prof1.


So, uh… what if I don’t have LDAP or NIS?

Well, in a Windows domain, you ALWAYS have an LDAP server. Active Directory leverages LDAP schemas to store information and any version of Windows Active Directory can be used to look up UNIX users and groups. In fact, the newer versions of Windows make this very easy. In older Windows versions, you had to manually extend the LDAP schema to provide UNIX attributes. Now, UNIX attributes like UID, UIDnumber, etc. are all in LDAP by default. All you have to do is populate these values with information. You can even do it via PowerShell CMDlets!

Once you have a working Active Directory LDAP environment, you can then configure ONTAP to communicate with LDAP for UNIX identities and you’re well on your way to having a scalable, functional multiprotocol NAS environment.

The one downside I’ve found with Windows NFS is that it doesn’t always play nicely when you want to use SMB on the same client. Windows gets a bit… confused. I haven’t dug into that a ton, but I’ve seen it enough to express caution. 🙂

New dedicated NFS Kerberos TR is now available!

When I first started as the NFS TME about 5 years ago, I took TR-4073 and expanded upon it to make it into a larger solution document that covered LDAP, NFSv4.x and Kerberos. As a result, it ballooned from 50-60 pages to 275 pages.

It seemed like a good idea at the time.


What I discovered was that while people didn’t fully understand Kerberos, LDAP and NFSv4, many also just wanted something to help them set it up, rather than a manifesto on all the quirks and how it works. So, I decided to do that.


TR-4616 is a new TR that is dedicated solely to a simplified setup of NFS Kerberos in ONTAP. The TR is a total of 43 pages, and only 10-15 pages of that is the actual set up.

To make it simpler, I did the following:

  • Limited the scope of setup to ONTAP 9.2 and later, Microsoft Windows 2012/2016, RHEL/Centos 6.x and 7.x
  • Less explanations of “what,” more on “how”
  • Fewer screenshots
  • No LDAP/NFS specific information not related to Kerberos

Have a look and let me know what you think!